Major publications

Books versus articles

If you are interested in culture but not yourself active in cross-cultural research, you may want to look at our books first. If you specifically look for scientific work by Geert, check the chronological list below.

Journal publications by Geert Hofstede 2010-now

244. "Do American Theories Apply in China?". Cross-Cultural Management, SISU, Shanghai, 2015, Vol. 3 no. 1, 205, 21-27.

243. "National Differences in Communication Styles". Chapter 1 in D. Brzozowska and W. Chłopicki (Eds.), Culture's Software: Communication Styles, Cambridge Scholars Printing, 2015, 1-14 (preceded by a 1-page Foreword).

242. “American Culture and the 2008 Financial Crisis”. In L. Harrison and E. Yasin (Eds.), Culture Matters in Russia – and Everywhere, Lanham, Maryland,  Lexington Books, 2015, 313-323. 

241.   (with Michael Minkov – first author) “Nations Versus Religions: Which Has a Stronger Effect on Societal Values?” Management International Review, Vol. 54 no. 6, 2014, 801-24.

240. (with Michael Minkov – first author) “A replication of Hofstede’s uncertainty avoidance dimension across nationally representative samples from Europe” International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, Vol. 14 no. 2, 2014, 161-71.

239. (with Michael Minkov – first author – and Vesselin Blagoev) “The boundaries of culture: Do questions about societal norms reveal cultural differences?” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 44 no. 7, 2013, 1094-1106.

238. “Replicating and extending cross-national value studies: rewards and pitfalls. An example from Middle East studies”. AIB Insights Vol.13 no.2, 2013, 5-7.

237. “Managing time or timing management?”. In H. Helfrich, E. Hölter and I.V. Arzhenovskiy (Eds.), Time and Management from a Cross-Cultural Perspective, Boston, Hogrefe Publishing, 2013, 1-14.

236. Foreword to special issue about Asian Leadership, Asia Pacific Business Review, Vol. 18 no.4, October 2012, 449-50.

235. (with Michael Minkov - first author) “Is National Culture a Meaningful Concept? Cultural Values Delineate Homogeneous National Clusters of In-Country Regions”. Cross-Cultural Research Vol. 46 no 2, 2012; 133-59 (prepublication December 2011 on under DOI: 10.1177/1069397111427262).

234.(with Michael Minkov – first author) “Hofstede’s fifth dimension: New evidence from the World Values Survey”. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 43 no. 1, 2012, 3-14.

233. “National cultures, organizational cultures, and the role of management”. In F. González (Ed.),Values and Ethics for the 21st Century. BBVA, Madrid, Spain, 2011, 459-81. Spanish version « Culturasnacionales, culturas organizacionales y el papel de la gestión empresarial », in Valores y Ética para el siglo XXI, BBVA Madrid, 2011, 487-511. Summary in O. Kozlova and A. Kolodziej-Durnas (Eds.), Cultural Diversity as a Source of Integration and Alienation – Nations, Regions, Organizations. ECONOMICUS and University of Szczecin, Poland, 2011, 7-14.

232. “Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede Model in context”. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, Unit 2. Retrieved from, 2011.

231. (with Marieke de Mooij – first author) “Cross-cultural consumer behavior: A review of research findings”, Journal of International Consumer Marketing, Vol.23, 2011, 181-92.

230. (with Michael Minkov - first author) "The evolution of Hofstede's doctrine". Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, Vol. 18 no. 1, 2011, 10-20.

229. (with Michael Minkov) "Long- versus short-term orientation: new perspectives". Asia Pacific Business Review, Vol. 16 no. 4, 2010, 493-504.

228. "Hard rijden hoort bij vermijden van onzekerheid - Nederlanders raken onzeker en gestresst. Daar horen bij: 130 km/uur, grof taalgebruik en wantrouwen tegen politici". NRC Handelsblad, Zaterdag 13 en Zondag 14 november 2010, Opinie & Debat, 8-9.

227. "De nationaliteit van theorieën". ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten, 95 (4597), 12 november 2010, 692-93.Ook gepubliceerd in A. Jolink (red.), Ooggetuigen van de crisis: Nederlandse economen tijdens de Grote Recessie. Den Haag, SDU Uitgevers, 2010, 146-51.

226. "The GLOBE debate: Back to relevance". Journal of International Business Studies, Vol.41 no. 8, 2010, 1339-46

225. (with W. de Kort - first author, E. Wagenmans, A. Van Dongen, Y. Slotboom and I. Veldhuizen) "Blood product collection and supply: a matter of money?" Vox Sanguinis, Vol. 98, 2010, 201-08.

224. (with Adriana V. Garibaldi de Hilal, Sigmar Malvezzi, Betania Tanure and Henk Vinken) "Comparing regional cultures within a country: Lessons from Brazil". Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 41 no. 3, 2010, 336-52.

223.(with Marieke de Mooij - first author) "The Hofstede model: Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research". International Journal of Advertising, Vol.29 no. 1, 2010, 85-110.

Journal publications by Geert Hofstede 2000-2009

222. "Business goals for a new world order: beyond growth, greed and quarterly results". Asia Pacific Business Review, Vol.15 no. 4, 2009, 481-88.

221. "The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories - Perspective". In L. Eden (Ed.), "Perspectives on international business: Insights from the 1970-1985 JIBS Decade Award Winners". Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 40, 2009, 1589.

220. "American culture and the 2008 financial crisis". European Business Review, Vol. 21 no. 4, 2009, 307-12.

219. "Who is the fairest of them all? Galit Ailon's Mirror". Dialogue with a Reply by Galit Ailon in Academy of Management Review, Vol. 34, 2009, 570-73.

218. (with Ludwien Meeuwesen - first author - and Atie van den Brink-Muinen) "Can dimensions of national culture predict cross-national differences in medical communication?Patient Education and Counseling, Vol. 75, 2009, 58-66.

217. (with Reginald Deschepper - first author -, Larissa Grigoryan, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg, Joachim Cohen, Greta Van der Kelen, Luc Deliens and Flora M. Haayer-Ruskamp) "Are cultural dimensions relevant for explaining cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe?" BMC Health Services Research, Vol. 8. London: BioMed Central - the Open Access Publisher, 2008.

216. "La culture et l'esprit des lois." Chapter 1 in P. Meerts (Ed.), Culture and International Law. Hague Academic Press, 2008, 2-22 (summary in English).

214. "Asian management in the 21st century". Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Vol. 24 no. 4, 2007, 411-420.

211A. "Motivatsia, liderstvo i organizatsia: Primenimij li Amerikanskie teorii v drugich stranach?" in Vestnik Sankt-Petersburgskogo Universiteta, Vol. 8 no. 4, 2006, 134-162. (Russian version of article no. 51).

211. (with Gerhard Fink) "Culture: organisations, personalities and nations. Gerhard Fink interviews Geert Hofstede". European Journal of International Management, Vol.1, nos ½, 2007.

210. "A European in Asia". Asian Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 10, 2007, 16-21.

209. "Der kulturele Kontext psychologischer Prozesse". In G. Trommsdorf & H.-J. Kornadt (Hrsg.), Theorien und Methoden der kulturvergleichenden Psychologie, Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Themenbereich C, Serie VIII, Band 1. Göttingen: Hogrefe Verlag für Psychologie, 2007, 385-405.

207. "What did GLOBE really measure? Researchers' minds versus respondents' minds". Journal of International Business Studies, Vol.37 no.6, 2006, 882-96.

206. "Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context". In W.J. Lonner, D.L. Dinnel, S.A. Hayes & D.N. Sattler: Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, Unit 2: Conceptual, Methodological and Ethical Issues in Psychology and Culture. Bellingham WA: Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University. Online at ngs.htm, January 2006.

205. "De Europeaan bestaat!". Co-referaat bij tweede Rob-lezing door Prof. Mr. F.H.J.J. Andriessen: Integratie en differentatie in de Europese Unie, 16 september 2004. Den Haag: Raad voor het Openbaar Bestuur, 2005.

204. "Diplomats as Cultural Bridge Builders". In H. Slavik (Ed.),Intercultural Communication and Diplomacy Malta and Geneva: DiploFoundation, 2004, 25-38.

203. "Nederlandse bestuurscultuur". In B.F.Steur, H. van Dijk & G.J. van den Nieuwenhuizen, Democratische vergezichten: Essays over de representatieve democratie in Nederland. Den Haag: Raad voor het openbaar bestuur, december 2004.

200. "Business goals and corporate governance". Asia Pacific Business Review, Vol. 10 no. 3-4, 2004, 292-301.

199. "Culture and language". In R. Wilkinson (Ed.),Integrating Content and Language: Meeting the challenge of a multilingual higher education. Maastricht Neth.: Universitaire Pers Maastricht, 2004, 15-19.

197. (with Niels G. Noorderhaven, A. Roy Thurik, Lorraine M. Uhlaner, Alexander R.M. Wennekers and Ralph E. Wildeman) "Culture's role in entrepreneurship: self-employment out of dissatisfaction". In T.E. Brown & J. Ulijn (Eds.), Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Culture: The Interaction between Technology,Progress and Economic Growth

196. "Epi-dialogue". In H. Vinken, J. Soeters & P. Ester (Eds.), Comparing Cultures: Dimensions of Culture in a Comparative Perspective. Leiden Neth.: Brill, 2004, 270-78.

195. (with Robert R. McCrae) "Personality and Culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture". Cross-Cultural Research, Vol. 38 no 1, 2004, 52-88.

194. "What is culture? A reply to Baskerville". Accounting, Organizations and Society, Vol. 28, 2003, 811-813.

191. (with Cheryl A. Van Deusen, Carolyn B. Mueller, Thomas A. Charles and the Business Goals Network) "What goals do business leaders pursue? A study in fifteen countries". Journal of International Business Studies , Vol. 33 no. 4, 4th Quarter 2002, 785-803.

190. "Dimensions do not exist: A reply to Brendan McSweeney". Human Relations, Vol. 55 no. 11, November 2002, 1355-1360.

189. "On Value Change: An Epilogue". Sociale Wetenschappen (Tilburg, Netherlands), Jrg. 45 no. 2, 2002, 61-66.

188. (with Marieke de Mooij - first author) "Convergence and Divergence in Consumer Behavior: Implications for International Retailing". Journal of Retailing, 78, 2002, 61-69.

187. "Culturele diversiteit in de Nederlandse samenleving". Justitiële verkenningen, Jrg. 28 no. 5, juni 2002.

186. "The pitfalls of cross-national survey research: A reply to the article by Spector et al. on the psychometric properties of the Hofstede Values Survey Module 1994". Applied Psychology: An International Review, Vol.51 no. 1, January 2002.

185. (with Sander Wennekers - first author-, Niels Noorderhaven and Roy Thurik) "Cultural and Economic Determinants of Business Ownership across Countries". Frontiers for Entrepreneurship Research, 2001. Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership Award.

184. "Comparing Behaviors Across Nations - Some Suggestions to Levine and Norenzayan". Cross-Cultural Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 35 no.3, September 2001, 27-29.

183."Organization Culture". in A. Sorge (Ed.), Organization. London, Thomson Learning, 2002, 68-91. (New version of 155).

182. "Two Wonderlands: Japan and the Netherlands through the Looking-Glass." The International Scope Review, Vol. 3 no. 5, Summer 2001 (virtual journal on Internet ).

181. (with Richard H. Franke -first author- and Michael Harris Bond) "National Culture and Economic Growth." In M.J. Gannon and K.L. Newman (Eds.), The Blackwell Handbook of Cross-Cultural Management. Oxford UK: Blackwell Publishers, 2002, 6-15.

180. "Whatever happened to Masculinity and Feminity?" Cross-Cultural Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 34 no. 4, December 2000, 14-19 and 37.

179. "Culture's Recent Consequences: Using Dimension Scores in Theory and Research," International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, Vol. 1 no. 1, 2001, 11-17.

178. "Masculine and Feminine Cultures," in A.E.Kazdin (Ed. in Chief), Encyclopedia of Psychology, Volume 5 , Washington D.C. and New York: American Psychological Association and Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 115-18.

Journal publications by Geert Hofstede 1990-1999

175. "The Universal and the Specific in 21st-Century Global Management," Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 28 no. 1, Summer 1999, 34-43.

174. Compte-rendu de: Philippe d'Iribarne, Alain Henry, Jean-Pierre Segal, Sylvie Chevrier et Tatjana Globokar: Cultures et mondialisation: Gérer par-delà les frontières. Revue Française de Gestion, No. 123, mars-avril-mai 1999, 120-121.

173. (with Ralph E. Wildeman - first author -, Niels G. Noorderhaven, A. Roy Thurik, Wim H.J. Verhoeven and Alexander R.M. Wennekers) Self-Employment in 23 OECD Countries: The Role of Cultural and Economic Factors . Research Report 9811/E, Zoetermeer Neth.: EIM Small Business Research and Consultancy, April 1999.

167. "Attitudes, Values and Organizational Culture: Disentangling the Concepts."Organization Studies, Vol.19 no.3, 1998, 477-493.

166.Entrepreneurship in Europe. Schuman lecture 1998. Published by Studium Generale Maastricht / House of Europe.

165. "A Case for Comparing Apples with Oranges: International Differences in Values". In International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol. 39 no. 1, 1998, 16-31. Also published as a chapter in M. Sasaki (Ed.), Values and Attitudes Across Nations and Time, Leiden NL., Brill, International Studies in Sociology and Social Anthropology no. 69, 1998, 16-31.

163. "Identifying Organizational Subcultures: An Empirical Approach". Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 35 no. 1, 1998, 1-12.

160. "The Archimedes Effect". In M.H. Bond (Ed.), Working at the Interface of Cultures: Eighteen Lives in Social Science. London: Routledge, 1997, 47-61.

157. "Linking Structure to Culture". In T. Clark (Ed.), Advancement in Organizational Behaviour: Essays in Honour of Derek S. Pugh. Aldershot UK: Ashgate, 1997, 199-218.

156. "Riding the Waves: A Rejoinder". International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 21 no. 2, 1997, 287-290.

155. "Organization Culture". In M. Warner and A. Sorge (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Business and Management, Volume 4. London, Thomson Business Press, 1996, 3821-3838. New, extended version in M. Warner (Ed), Concise International Encyclopedia of Business and Management, Volume 4. London, Thomson Business Press, 1997, 540-558. Also in A. Sorge and M. Warner (Eds.), The Handbook of Organizational Behaviour , London, Thomson Business Press, 1997, 193-210 and in M.Poole and M. Warner (Eds.), The Handbook of Human Resource Management, London, Thomson Business Press, 1998, 237-255.

151. "Gender Stereotypes and Partner Preferences of Asian Women in Masculine and Feminine Cultures". Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol.27 no.5, 1996, 533-546.

149. "A Hopscotch Hike". In A. Bedeian (Ed.), Management Laureates: A Collection of Autobiographical Essays, Volume 4. Greenwich CN, JAI Press, 1996, 85-122.

148. "Riding the Waves of Commerce: A Test of Trompenaars' 'Model' of National Culture Differences". International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 20 no. 2, 1996, 189-198.

147. "An American in Paris: The Influence of Nationality on Organization Theories". Organization Studies , Vol.17 no.3, 1996, 525-537.

146. Wie is er bang voor Europa ? 16e Duijkerlezing, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 20 maart 1996. Houten, Bohn Stafleu van Loghum, 1996.

144. (with Ludek Kolman, Ovidiu Nicolescu and Indrek Pajumaa) "Characteristics of the ideal job among students in eight countries. In H. Grad, A. Blanco and J. Georgas (Eds.), Key Issues in Cross-Cultural Psychology. Lisse NL., Swets & Zeitlinger, 1996, 199-216.

143. "The Nation-State as a Source of Common Mental Programming: Similarities and Differences Across Eastern and Western Europe", in S. Gustavsson and L. Lewin (Eds.), The Future of the Nation-State: Essays on Cultural Pluralism and Political Integration. Stockholm, Nerenius & Santérus and London, Routledge, 1996, 19-48.

141. "Multilevel Research of Human Systems: Flowers, Bouquets and Gardens". Human Systems Management, Vol.5 no.3, 1995, 207-217.

139. (with Joseph Soeters - first author - and Mireille Van Twuyver) "Culture's Consequences and the Police: Cross-Border Cooperation between Police Forces in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands". Policing and Society , Vol. 5, 1995, 1-14.

137. "Verzekering als produkt van nationale waarden". Economisch Statistische Berichten, speciale uitgave "Onverzekerbaarheid: wie neemt het risico ?", februari 1995, 4-8. English version "Insurance as a product of national values", The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance, Vol.20, no.77, 1995, 423-429.

135. "The Merchant and the Preacher - As Pictured by Multatuli's Max Havelaar (1860)", in B. Czarniawska-Joerges and P. Guillet de Monthoux (Eds.), Good Novels, Better Management: Reading Organizational Realities. Chur Switz., Harwood Academic Publishers, 1994, 138-153.

133. (with Mieke Vunderink) "A Case Study in Masculinity/Femininity Differences: American Students in the Netherlands vs. Local Students", in A.M. Bouvy, F.J.R. van de Vijver, P. Boski and P. Schmitz (Eds.), Journeys into Cross-cultural Psychology. Lisse NL., Swets and Zeitlinger, 1994, 329-347.

130. "Management Scientists are Human", Management Science, Vol. 40 No. 1, 1994, 4-13.

129. (with Michael H. Bond and Chung-leung Luk) "Individual Perceptions of Organizational Cultures: A Methodological Treatise on Levels of Analysis", Organization Studies, Vol. 14 No. 4, 1993, 483-503.

128. Images of Europe, Valedictory address University of Limburg, Maastricht, 1 October 1993. Also in The Netherlands Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 30 No. 1, 1994, 63-82. Dutch translation: Waar denk je aan bij het woord "Europa"?, Institute for Research on Intercultural Cooperation (IRIC), University of Limburg at Maastricht, 1993. English version "Images of Europe: Past, Present and Future", in P. Joynt and M. Warner (Eds.), Managing across Cultures: Issues and Perspectives, London, Thomson, 1996, 147-165.

124. "Cultural Constraints in Management Theories", The Executive, Vol. VII No. 1, 1993, 81-94. Also in International Review of Strategic Management, Vol. 5, 1994, 27-48. Dutch version in monograph: Managementtheorieën in verschillende culturen. Management Briefing, Schoonhoven NL, Academic Service, 1996.

113. "Management in a Multicultural Society", Malaysian Management Review, Vol. 25 No. 1, April 1991, 3-12.

108. (with B. Neuijen, D.D. Ohayv and G. Sanders) "Measuring organizational cultures: a qualitative and quantitative study across twenty cases". Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 35 No. 2, June 1990, 286-316.

Journal publications by Geert Hofstede 1980-1989

99. "Cultural predictors of national negotiation styles". In F. Mautner-Markhof (Ed.), Processes of International Negotiations. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1989, 193-201. Reprinted with an addendum by J.C. Usunier as "Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture and their Influence on International Business Negotiations", Chapter 6 in P.N. Ghauri and J.C. Usunier (Eds.). International Business Negotiations, Oxford, Pergamon, 1996, 119-129.

97. "Sozialisation am Arbeitsplatz aus kulturvergleichender Sicht". In G. Trommsdorff (Hrsg.),Sozialisation im Kulturvergleich, Stuttgart, Ferdinand Enke Verlag, 1989, 156-173. English version "Cultural dimensions in people management: the socialization perspective". In V. Pucik, N.M. Tichy and C.K. Barnett (Eds.), Globalizing Management: Creating and Leading the Competitive Organization. New York, Wiley, 1992, 139-158.

96. "Women in Management - A Matter of Culture". The International Management Development Review , Brussels, Management Centre Europe, Vol. 5, 1989, 250-254.

92. (with M.H. Bond) "The Confucius Connection: From Cultural Roots to Economic Growth".Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 16 no. 4, Spring 1988, 4-21. Japanese version in Kwansei Gakuin Sociology Department Studies No. 61, Nishinomiya, Kwansei Gakuin University, March 1988. Abridged Dutch version "Confucius en economische groei", in Economisch Statistische Berichten, Vol. 75 no. 3744, 7 februari 1990, 128-131 and 136.

90. "The Applicability of McGregor's Theories in South East Asia". The Journal of Management Development , Vol. 6 no 3, 1987, 9-18 (Special Issue on Multicultural Management Development, edited by Indrei Ratiu). Also under the title "McGregor in Southeast Asia ?" in D. Sinha & H.S.R. Kao (Eds.), Social Values and Development: Asian Perspectives. New Delhi, Sage Publications, 1988, 304-314.

87. "Intercultural Conflict and Synergy in Europe". In J.L. Soeters (ed), Cultural Aspects of Economic Cooperation in Europe. Maastricht NL., University of Limburg, 1987, 21-29. Also in David J. Hickson (Ed.), Management in Western Europe: Society, Culture and Organization in Twelve Nations, Berlin, Walter de Gruyter, 1993, 1-8.

85. "The Cultural Context of Accounting". In: B.E. Cushing (Ed.). Accounting and Culture, Plenary session papers and discussants' comments from the 1986 Annual Meeting of the American Accounting Association, New York. American Accounting Association, 1987, 1-11.

84.Gevolgen van het Nederlanderschap: Gezondheid, Recht en Economie. Inaugurele rede Rijksuniversiteit Limburg, Maastricht, 15 mei 1987. English version: Dutch Culture's Consequences: Health, Law and Economy . Research Memorandum RM 87-037, Department of Economics and Business Administration, University of Limburg at Maastricht, 1987.

81. "Cultural Differences in Teaching and Learning". International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 10, no. 3, 1986, 301-320 (SIETAR Award, 1987).

78. "The Role of Cultural Values in Economic Development". In L. Arvedson, I. Hägg, M. Lönnroth and B. Rydén (eds). Economics and Values. Stockholm, Swe., Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1986, 122-135.

77. "The Interaction between National and Organizational Value Systems". Journal of Management Studies. Vol. 22, No. 4, July 1985, 347-357.

72. (with M.H. Bond) "Hofstede's Culture Dimensions: An Independent Validation Using Rokeach's Value Survey". Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 15, No. 4, December 1984, 417-433.

70. "The Cultural Relativity of the Quality of Life Concept". Academy of Management Review, Vol. 9, no. 3, 1984, 389-398. Also in G. Redding (Ed.), International Cultural Differences, Aldershot UK, Dartmouth, 1995.

68. "National Cultures Revisited". Behavior Science Research, Vol. 18 no. 4, 1983, 285-305. French version "Un réexamen des cultures nationales" in Les Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, no. 2-3, 1989, 43-64.

64. "The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices and Theories". Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 14, no. 2, Fall 1983, 75-89. Abridged Dutch version "Cultuurgebonden Managementstijlen" in Elan, juni/juli 1986, 44-47. French version "Relativité culturelle des pratiques et théories de l'organisation", in Revue Française de Gestion, 64, sept/okt. 1987, 10-21. Chinese version in JIBS, (a collection of the most influential articles), Beijing: China Machine Press, 2001, 265-294 (

62. "Dimensions of National Cultures in Fifty Countries and Three Regions". In J.B. Deregowski, S. Dziurawiec and R.C. Annis (eds), Expiscations in Cross-Cultural Psychology. Lisse NL., Swets and Zeitlinger, 1983, 335-355.

58. "Cultural Dimensions for Project Management". In: J.O. Riis, J. Lauridsen, M. Fangel, S. Hildebrandt and F. Runge (eds), Project Management - Tools and Visions, Proceedings of the 7th Internet World Congress 1982, Volume G-K. Copenhagen, The Danish Technical Press, 1982, 683-700. Also inInternational Journal of Project Management, Vol. 1, no. 1, 1983, 4-48. German version in GPM Nachrichten, no. 4, sept. 1983, 5-15.

56. Cultural Pitfalls for Dutch Expatriates in Indonesia. Deventer, Twijnstra Gudde International b.v., 1982. Also in Euro-Asia Business Review, Vol. 1, no. 1, 37-41, and Vol. 2, no. 1, 38-47. Dutch version: Culturele Problemen voor Nederlandse managers en deskundigen in Indonesië.Deventer, Twijnstra Gudde International b.v., 1982.

54. "Do American Theories Apply Abroad? A Reply to Goodstein and Hunt", Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 10, no. 1, Summer 1981, 63-68.

53. "Management Control of Public and Not-for-Profit Activities",Accounting, Organizations and Society, Vol. 6, no. 3, 1981, 193-221. Reprinted as Research Report 82-45, Laxenburg, Austria, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, December 1982.

51. "Motivation, Leadership, and Organization: Do American Theories Apply Abroad?", Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 9 no. 1, Summer 1980, 42-63. Also in P.O. Berg and P. Daudi (eds), Traditions and Trends in Organization Theory, Part II. Lund Swe., Studentlitteratur, 1982. Italian version "Motivazione, leadership, organizzazione: si possono applicare all' estero le teorie americane?" inSviluppo e Organizzazione, no. 62, 1980, 14-34. Danish version "Ledelselsmetoderne og de nationale kulturforskelle" in Harvard Børsen, no. 1, Winter 1981-82, 7-23.

50. "Angola Coffee - Or the Confrontation of an Organization with Changing Values in its Environment",Organization Studies, Vol. 1, 1980, 21-40. See also book: Uncommon Sense about Organizations.

Journal publications by Geert Hofstede 1970-1980

47. "Hierarchical Power Distance in Forty Countries". In: C.J. Lammers and D.J. Hickson (eds), Organizations Alike and Unlike: Towards a Comparative Sociology of Organizations. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979, 97-119.

45. "Amsterdamse arbeiders in 1955: een participerende waarneming", Amsterdams Sociologisch Tijdschrift, Vol. 5, no. 3, december 1978, 516-539. English version see book: Uncommon Sense about Organizations.

43. Humanisering van de Arbeid: de rol van waarden in een derde Industriële Revolutie. Den Haag, Stichting Maatschappij en Onderneming, 1978. English version "Humanization of Work: The Role of Values in a Third Industrial Revolution" in: C.L. Cooper and E. Mumford (eds), The Quality of Working Life in Eastern and Western Europe. London, Associated Business Press, 1979, 18-37. Also in D. Ondrack and S. Timperley (eds): The Humanisation of Work: A European Perspective, London, Armstrong Publishing, 1982, 215-239. See also book: Uncommon Sense about Organizations.

42. "The Poverty of Management Control Philosophy", in Academy of Management Review, Vol. 3, no. 3, July 1978, 450-461. See also book: Uncommon Sense about Organizations. Appeared as Chapter 17 in A.J. Berry, J. Broadbent and D.T. Otley (Eds.), Management Control Theory, a volume in the History of Management Thought series, Dartmouth UK: Ashgate, 1998. Italian version in Studi Organizzativi, Vol. 10, no. 4, 1978, 5-23. French version appeared as working paper of EIASM, Brussels, no. 75-44 F, June 1976.

41. "Occupational Determinants of Stress and Satisfaction". In: B. Wilpert and A.R. Negandhi (eds), Work Organization Research: European and American Perspectives, Kent, Ohio, Kent State University Press, 1978, 233-252. See also book: Uncommon Sense about Organizations.

40. "Businessmen and Business School Faculty: A Comparison of Value Systems", Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 15, no. 1, Febr. 1978, 77-87. See also book: Uncommon Sense about Organizations.

39. "Confrontation in the Cathedral: A Case Study on Power and Social Change", International Studies of Management and Organization, New York, Vol. 7, no. Spring 1977, 16-32. See also book: Uncommon Sense about Organizations.

37. "People and Techniques in Budgeting". In: C.B. Tilanus (Ed.), Quantitative Methods in Budgeting. Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff, 1976, 10-22. See also book: Uncommon Sense about Organizations.

36. (with L.I. Rajkay) "Looking at the Boss and Looking at Ourselves", Management International Review, Vol. 16, no. 2, May 1976, 61-71. See also book: Uncommon Sense about Organizations.

35. "Nationality and Espoused Values of Managers", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 61, no. 2, April 1976, 148-155.

34. "Alienation at the Top", Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 4, no. 3, Winter 1976, 44-60. Also in: M. Ghertman and J. Leontiades (eds), European Research in International Business, Amsterdam, North-Holland, 1978, 307-330. See also book: Uncommon Sense about Organizations.

32. "Perceptions of Others After a T-Group", Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Vol. 11, no. 3, 1975, 367-377. See also book: Uncommon Sense about Organizations.

30. "Predicting Managers' Career Success in an International Setting: The Validity of Ratings by Training Staff versus Training Peers", Management International Review, Vol. 15, no. 1, 1975, 43-50. See also book: Uncommon Sense about Organizations. Reprinted in Management International Review, Vol.34, Special Issue 1994/1, 63-70.

28. (with L.A. de Bettignies) "De werkgemeenschap 'Boimondau'", Mens en Onderneming, 28e jrg. no. 6, 1974, 317-338. English version: "Communauté de Travail 'Boimondau', in International Studies of Management and Organization, New York, Vol. 7, no. 1, Spring 1977, 91-116. See also book: Uncommon Sense about Organizations.

27. (with R.Y. Kranenburg) "Work Goals of Migrant Workers", Human Relations, Vol. 27, no. 1, 1974, 83-99.

24. "Frustrations of Personnel Managers", Management International Review, Vol. 13, no. 4-5, 1973, 127-143. See also book: Uncommon Sense about Organizations.

21. "The Colors of Collars", Columbia Journal of World Business, Vol. 7, no. 5, sept./oct. 1972, 72-80. See also book: Uncommon Sense about Organizations. Polish version in Prakseologia, 1974, no. 3-4, 85-101.

20. (with P.J. Sadler) "Leadership Styles: Preferences and Perceptions of Employees of an International Company in Different Countries", Mens en Onderneming, 26e jrg. no. 1, jan 1972, 43-63. Reprinted in International Studies of Management and Organization, New York, Vol. 6, no. 3, Fall 1976, 87-113.

18. (with T. Lindner) "Messung sozialer Distanz", Gruppendynamik, 23e jrg. no. 4, 1970, 337-356.

Books (beyond those on culture), reports and journal issues

1. The Game of Budget Control. Assen NL., Van Gorcum, and London, Tavistock, 1967, 1968, 1970, 1972. Annual Efficiency Award NIVE, 1968. Japanese version: Tokyo, Diamond Publishers, 1976. French version: Contrôle budgetaire: les règles du jeu. Paris, Éditions Hommes et Techniques, 1977.

2.Baas en Budget. Alphen aan den Rijn NL., Samsom, 1968, 1974.

3. Editor (with M.S. Kassem) of: European Contributions to Organization Theory. Assen NL., Van Gorcum, 1976.

4. Editor of "Power in Organizations", issue of International Studies of Management and Organization, New York, Vol.
7, no. 1, Spring 1977.

5. Editor of: De toekomst van ons werk. Leiden NL., Stenfert Kroese 1978. English version: Futures for Work. The Hague NL., Martinus Nijhoff, 1979.

7. Editor of "Organizational Culture and Control", special issue of Journal of Management Studies, Manchester, Vol. 23, no. 3, May 1986.

8. (with D. Bollinger) Les differences culturelles dans le management. Paris, Les Éditions d'Organisation, 1987. Prix du Trident d' Entreprise, 1988. Italian version: Inter Nazionalità . Milano, Guerini e Associati, 1989.

9. Cultural Roots of Attitudes about Biotechnology. Summary of report for CUBE (Concertation Unit for Biotechnology in Europe) of the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, August 1992, published as Working Paper 92-7 by IRIC, Tilburg.

10. (with Mireille Van Twuyver, Birgit Kapp, Herie de Vries, Michael Faure, Frank Claus and Joyce Van der Wel) Grensoverschrijdende politiesamenwerking tussen België, Duitsland, en Nederland; met speciale aandacht voor de Euregio Maas-Rijn. Maastricht NL, Universitaire Pers Maastricht, 1993. French version: Coopération policière transfrontalière entre la Belgique, l'Allemagne et les Pays-Bas et plus spécialement dans l'Euregio Meuse-Rhin. Maastricht NL, Universitaire Pers Maastricht, 1993. German version: Grenzüberschreitende polizeiliche Zusammenarbeit zwischen Belgien, Deutschland und den Niederlanden unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Euregio Maas-Rhein. Maastricht NL, Universitaire Pers Maastricht, 1993.

Featured titles

To see which publications have been most cited, visit Geert's Google citations profile. That lists contains both books and journal articles. Many articles can be read online. 

Interesting new articles will be posted under news.


Do cultures shift over time?

As the world turns, the question arises whether national cultures change. They do, but slowly, and often together. One 2015 article by Beugelsdijk et al. that used various waves of the World Values Survey shows value shifts, but also continuity across age groups 


Global Strategy Journal 5: 233-240.