The 6-D model of national culture
Geert Hofstede, assisted by others, came up with six basic issues that society needs to come to term with in order to organize itself. These are called dimensions of culture. Each of them has been expressed on a scale that runs roughly from 0 to 100.
For interactive world maps and pick-your-own-countries 3-d graphs of Hofstede dimension scores, check Hofstede's Globe in the Geert Hofstede online exhibition "An engineer's Odyssey".
Dimension maps of the world: Individualism
Each dimension has been derived by comparing many, but not all, countries in the world. The findings can be summarized into six world maps of the distribution of that dimension. Of course, in reality there can be quite a bit of within-country variation; these maps should be seen as rough 'climate maps' of culture.
Dimension maps: Power Distance
Dimension maps: Masculinity
Dimension maps: Uncertainty Avoidance
The last two dimensions
The last two dimensions were found later, and in different studies, than the first four. This is why different countries appear on the world maps. These maps are taken from the 2007 book "Why we are different and similar" by Michael Minkov. In our 2010 book they are re-scaled to a 0-100 format. The scale is also reversed for Flexhumility (long-term orientation, blue on the map) versus monumentalism (short-term orientation, orange on the map).
Remember, the numbers do not really 'mean' anything. They are just there for convenience. The world-wide pattern is what matters.
Dimension maps: Long-term Orientation
Dimension maps: Indulgence
The dimensions explained
For each dimension here is a brief description and a ten-minute video in which Geert Hofstede explains that dimension.
Individualism is the extent to which people feel independent, as opposed to being interdependent as members of larger wholes.
Power Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.
Masculinity is the extent to which the use of force in endorsed socially.
This is NOT about individuals, but about expected emotional gender roles. Masculine societies are much more openly gendered than feminine societies.
Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society’s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity.
Long-term orientation deals with change.
Indulgence is about the good things in life.
Are there more dimensions?
Since dimensions are imagined, not 'out there', there can be many more. Any study will reveal its own pattern, so yes, other dimensions can be found.