Geert passed away on 12 February 2020. An obituary (Gert Jan's Blog, nr 8) and his CV (menu option "Geert Hofstede') can be found on this site. For matters regarding his work you can email:

Gert Jan

In the context of my work at Wageningen University:

Geert en GJ back to back

Although I am not particularly fond of receiving questions by email that are clearly answered in our books or on our site, I like to think ahead together with those who are well prepared and have good ideas.


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Artwork and content by Gert Jan Hofstede.

Copyright issues


The copyright and translation rights for Geert's books, with or without co-authors, and nearly all of Geert's articles reside with Geert Hofstede BV, a company under Dutch law. Consultancy ODE is licenced (see partners). All others wishing to use Hofstede's work for commercial purposes must ask permission. All permission requests should be addressed to Geert Hofstede BV via (in case of problems: They will normally be answered within two weeks. The rights for Gert Jan's book "Exploring Cultures" reside with him.

No permission can be given to print material published on websites. Authorized original sources from which permission can be given are:

  • Geert Hofstede, "Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations", Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, 2001, ISBN 0-8039-7323-3.
  • Geert Hofstede and Gert Jan Hofstede, "Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind". Revised and Expanded 2nd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill USA, 2005, ISBN 0-07-143959-5.
  • Geert Hofstede,  Gert Jan Hofstede and Michael Minkov, "Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind". Revised and Expanded 3rdEdition. New York: McGraw-Hill USA, 2010, ISBN 0-07-xxxxxx-x.
  • For languages other than English, translations of these books.

VSM and Culture dimension scores

Geert's research data and his questionnaires are free to use for research purposes. Please note that prior reading of Geert's work is a must for adequate use. Frequent misunderstandings:

Do not use Hofstede scores at the individual level

The culture score of an individual, based on VSM data, is like using a person's average age; it does not make sense. A group has an average age, but a person does not.

Do not compute Hofstede scores for one country

Hofstede culture dimension scores are comparative. They compare not people, but countries. Using them for one country makes no sense. That would be a bit like saying "my country is great" - without countries to compare it with, such a statement is void.