6D Model of organisational culture

The organizational culture project

After Culture's Consequences was published in 1980, and became influential, the question arose how organizational culture was related to national culture.

A separate research project into organizational culture differences, conducted by Geert's institute IRIC (Institute for Research on Intercultural Ccoperation) across 20 organizational units in Denmark and the Netherlands in the 1980s, identified six independent dimensions of practices: process-oriented versus results-oriented, job-oriented versus employee-oriented, professional versus parochial, open systems versus closed systems, tightly versus loosely controlled, and pragmatic versus normative.

The position of an organization on these dimensions is partly determined by the business or industry the organization is in. Scores on the dimensions are also related to a number of other "hard" characteristics of the organizations. These lead to conclusions about how organization cultures can be and cannot be managed.

Organizational culture consultancy

The organization culture consultancy company itim was founded by Geert Hofstede and Bob Waisfisz in 1985. It is still active today. Itim works with both the national and the organizational culture model. It tries to integrate these models with new developments and to apply them for cutting-edge training and consultancy.